Sunday 14 November 2010 10:22 pm Spread betters can win £100,000 KCS-content Share WorldSpreads is offering a £100,000 prize to any spread betting client who can open and close 10 consecutive profitable trades in a row between today and Friday 10 December. To qualify, the trade must earn a profit of at least five points. If more than one trader wins, the cash will be divided equally. If no-one achieves 10 profitable trades in a row, the prize will go to clients with the highest number of consecutive winning trades. The competition, which is open to new and existing customers, celebrates WorldSpreads’ birthday. Tags: NULL whatsapp Read This NextRicky Schroder Calls Foo Fighters’ Dave Grohl ‘Ignorant Punk’ forThe WrapCNN’s Brian Stelter Draws Criticism for Asking Jen Psaki: ‘What Does theThe WrapDid Donald Trump Wear His Pants Backwards? Kriss Kross Memes Have AlreadyThe WrapHarvey Weinstein to Be Extradited to California to Face Sexual AssaultThe WrapPink Floyd’s Roger Waters Denies Zuckerberg’s Request to Use Song in Ad:The Wrap’The View’: Meghan McCain Calls VP Kamala Harris a ‘Moron’ for BorderThe Wrap’Sex and the City’ Sequel Series at HBO Max Adds 4 More ReturningThe WrapNewsmax Rejected Matt Gaetz When Congressman ‘Reached Out’ for a JobThe Wrap2 HFPA Members Resign Citing a Culture of ‘Corruption and Verbal Abuse’The Wrap by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksYou May LikeTotal PastThe Ingenious Reason There Are No Mosquitoes At Disney WorldTotal PastSerendipity TimesInside Coco Chanel’s Eerily Abandoned Mansion Frozen In TimeSerendipity Timesmoneycougar.comThis Proves The Osmonds Weren’t So Innocentmoneycougar.comTaonga: The Island FarmThe Most Relaxing Farm Game of 2021. No InstallTaonga: The Island FarmAlphaCute30 Rules That All “Hells Angels” Have To FollowAlphaCutethedelite.comNetflix Cancellations And Renewals: The Full List For 2021thedelite.comBlood Pressure Solution4 Worst Blood Pressure MedsBlood Pressure SolutionReporter CenterBrenda Lee: What Is She Doing Now At 76 Years of Age?Reporter CenterMisterStoryWoman Files For Divorce After Seeing This Photo – Can You See Why?MisterStory Show Comments ▼ whatsapp
Zambian Breweries Plc (ZAMBRW.zm) listed on the Lusaka Securities Exchange under the Beverages sector has released it’s 2008 annual report.For more information about Zambian Breweries Plc (ZAMBRW.zm) reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the Zambian Breweries Plc (ZAMBRW.zm) company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: Zambian Breweries Plc (ZAMBRW.zm) 2008 annual report.Company ProfileZambian Breweries Plc (Zambrew) is a brewing and beverages company; producing and marketing a wide range of clear beers and soft drinks. The company has a virtual monopoly on clear brew products in Zambia, with popular South African brands in its product range such as Castle Lager, Redd’s, Castle Lite, Carling Black Label and Ohlsson’s Lager. The company also produces strong, local brands to cater for local tastes which are marketed under the Mosi Lager and Eagle Lager brand name. The Soft Drinks division produces well-known international brands, including Coca-Cola, Sprite, Fanta and Schweppes. The company has two breweries and three bottling plants in Zambia. SABMiller has a majority stake in Zambrew (87%). SABMiller is one of the world’s largest brewers, with more 200 beer brands in its international product portfolio. Zambian Breweries Plc is listed on the Lusaka Stock Exchange
“This Stock Could Be Like Buying Amazon in 1997” Matthew Dumigan | Wednesday, 11th March, 2020 | More on: AV LGEN Simply click below to discover how you can take advantage of this. Renowned stock-picker Mark Rogers and his analyst team at The Motley Fool UK have named 6 shares that they believe UK investors should consider buying NOW.So if you’re looking for more stock ideas to try and best position your portfolio today, then it might be a good day for you. Because we’re offering a full 33% off your first year of membership to our flagship share-tipping service, backed by our ‘no quibbles’ 30-day subscription fee refund guarantee. I would like to receive emails from you about product information and offers from The Fool and its business partners. Each of these emails will provide a link to unsubscribe from future emails. More information about how The Fool collects, stores, and handles personal data is available in its Privacy Statement. Enter Your Email Address Matthew Dumigan has no position in any of the shares mentioned. The Motley Fool UK has no position in any of the shares mentioned. Views expressed on the companies mentioned in this article are those of the writer and therefore may differ from the official recommendations we make in our subscription services such as Share Advisor, Hidden Winners and Pro. Here at The Motley Fool we believe that considering a diverse range of insights makes us better investors. Click here to claim your copy now — and we’ll tell you the name of this Top US Share… free of charge! 2 dirt-cheap FTSE 100 dividend stocks I’d buy and hold for the long term Saudi Arabia’s fall-out with major oil exporting rival Russia over production costs has kicked off an aggressive oil price war. Thanks to this, global stocks have plummeted even further. The FTSE 100 index was down by over 7% after opening on Monday. Long-term investors in the market should exercise caution in this market crash, without panicking, and use it as an opportunity to buying consider stocks trading on cheap valuations.The pummelling of equity markets over the last two weeks has left investors struggling to weigh up the economic impact of Covid-19. Add to this a crash in oil prices and a major sell-off seems daunting to investors as they face the prospect of substantial losses. 5G is here – and shares of this ‘sleeping giant’ could be a great way for you to potentially profit!According to one leading industry firm, the 5G boom could create a global industry worth US$12.3 TRILLION out of thin air…And if you click here we’ll show you something that could be key to unlocking 5G’s full potential…That said, here are two FTSE 100 dividend stocks that look insanely cheap to me. I think any investor with a long-term horizon would do well to consider adding them to any portfolio.Legal & GeneralLegal & General (LSE: LGEN) is a multinational financial services company based in London. The company provides a multitude of services for clients including investment management, lifetime mortgages, pensions, annuities, and life assurance.The company’s goal is to improve lives through ‘inclusive capitalism’. Implementing this, alongside an impressive business strategy, accounts for the 30% increase in the share price from January 2019 to the beginning of 2020. The price continued to climb upwards until the outbreak of the coronavirus sent markets into correction territory.In a recently released full-year results report, the company boasted a 12% rise in year-on-year operating profit to £2.1bn. Interestingly, while growth was spread across all divisions, the institutional retirement business delivered a particularly strong set of results.Dividend yield is currently sitting at around 7% and has recently fluctuated between 5% and 7%. In the full-year report, the board recommended a final dividend of 12.64p per share. Full-year payment increased 7% to 17.57p.An impressive set of results failed to stimulate any substantial increase in the company’s share price. This is primarily thanks to the current market conditions. However, with a price-to-earnings ratio of around 7.91 at the time of writing, anyone looking to pick up a bargain and hold for the long-term would do well to consider shares in Legal & General.AvivaLast week, Aviva (LSE: AV) posted record full-year profits. The company reported a return on equity of 14.3% and a 6% rise in operating profit to £3.2bn. This impressive set of results should provide the insurance and investment firm with momentum to continue growing over the long term.The company lifted its dividend by 3% to 30.9p per share and now has a staggering yield of 9.74%. On top of this, a price-to-earnings ratio of 5.38 indicates that there’s certainly value to be had. What’s more, despite record operating profits, the share price barely moved.Overall, Aviva’s strong and resilient balance sheet, designed to withstand volatility, should significantly reduce to impact of the virus on the company’s performance. Outstanding financial performance coupled with a sustainable and reliable business strategy can only mean one thing. I think Aviva will continue to grow steadily into the future, providing investors with an attractive dividend yield. For me, the company is a strong buy for long-term investors, especially at its current dirt-cheap price. Image source: Getty Images. Our 6 ‘Best Buys Now’ Shares I’m sure you’ll agree that’s quite the statement from Motley Fool Co-Founder Tom Gardner.But since our US analyst team first recommended shares in this unique tech stock back in 2016, the value has soared.What’s more, we firmly believe there’s still plenty of upside in its future. In fact, even throughout the current coronavirus crisis, its performance has been beating Wall St expectations.And right now, we’re giving you a chance to discover exactly what has got our analysts all fired up about this niche industry phenomenon, in our FREE special report, A Top US Share From The Motley Fool. See all posts by Matthew Dumigan
San Sen House / Alejandro Sánchez García ArquitectosSave this projectSaveSan Sen House / Alejandro Sánchez García ArquitectosSave this picture!© Jaime Navarro SotoHouses•Valle de Bravo, Mexico Houses Projects CopySave this picture!© Jaime Navarro SotoRecommended ProductsWoodTechnowoodPergola SystemsDoorsSky-FrameInsulated Sliding Doors – Sky-Frame ArcDoorsLinvisibileLinvisibile Curved Hinged Door | AlbaRenders / 3D AnimationEnscape3D Real-Time Rendering SoftwareText description provided by the architects. Located in the woods in the area of Valle deBravo, San Sen house is designed with a steel structure floating on the ground.It is covered in wood and glass. The construction system allows us to open andclose the envelope depending on views, orientations, etc. Architects: Alejandro Sánchez García – Taller 6A Area Area of this architecture project Mexico “COPY” San Sen House / Alejandro Sánchez García Arquitectos Area: 860 m²+ 35 Share Save this picture!PlanProject gallerySee allShow lessUpdate: Aspen Art Museum / Shigeru Ban ArchitectsArticlesCL House / BAM! arquitecturaSelected Projects Share “COPY” Save this picture!© Jaime Navarro SotoDesigned entirely on one level from acirculation that articulates all the spaces in areas that functionindependently. The house is anchored to the ground by a service tower clad instone. ArchDaily ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/413429/san-sen-house-alejandro-sanchez-garcia-arquitectos Clipboard ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOrhttps://www.archdaily.com/413429/san-sen-house-alejandro-sanchez-garcia-arquitectos Clipboard CopyAbout this officeAlejandro Sánchez García – Taller 6AOfficeFollowProductWood#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesWoodValle De BravoMexicoPublished on August 10, 2013Cite: “San Sen House / Alejandro Sánchez García Arquitectos” [Casa San Sen / Alejandro Sánchez García – Taller 6A] 10 Aug 2013. ArchDaily. Accessed 11 Jun 2021.
Help by sharing this information News Receive email alerts October 30, 2020 Find out more RSF_en Reporters Without Borders called on the interior minister to act promptly to identify and punish police officers who arrested and beat journalist Vitaly Yougai, of state-owned Kazakhstan television, in the capital Astana.Police from the interior ministry stopped Yougai at the entrance to his apartment on the evening of 7 May and asked for his identity papers. The journalist suggested they accompanied him home because he did not have them on him. The police refused and forced him into a patrol car where he was beaten. They continued to rain blows on him at the police station until he was finally released two hours later.”I have got multiple bruising to my face and some of the blows have affected my hearing” the journalist told Reporters Without Borders. Yougaï laid a complaint on 10 May at the prosecutor’s office in the Sariarkinsky district of Astana and at the internal security service of the interior ministry.”It is unacceptable that a journalist should be object of violence and abuse of power from representatives of the state who, on the contrary, are supposed to protect all citizens,” said Reporters Without Borders. This assault is unworthy of a democratic state and we urge interior minister, Zautbek Turisbekov, to identify and quickly punish those responsible so that such acts are not repeated in the future”. News to go further KazakhstanEurope – Central Asia Reporters prevented from covering Kazakh parliamentary elections News Organisation News January 15, 2021 Find out more KazakhstanEurope – Central Asia Follow the news on Kazakhstan Kazakh reporter accuses police of attacking her Regional newspaper editor harassed after investigating real estate scandal February 5, 2021 Find out more May 11, 2005 – Updated on January 20, 2016 Call for interior ministry to act after police arrest and beat journalist
TAGSLimerick International Band ChampionshipMayor Stephen KearyShelia DeeganSt Patrick’s Day WhatsApp Email RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Previous articleKeep Limerick clean by volunteering for TLC4!Next articleLimerick Learning Festival returns with an international flavour Staff Reporterhttp://www.limerickpost.ie Actor Dominic West leads the Love for Limerick on St. Patrick’s Day Tune in to take part in the 2021 Limerick St Patrick’s Festival! Twitter St. Patrick’s Day in Lebanon Our social media statistics are hitting the high notes Facebook NewsMore than 1,300 people to take part in Limerick International Band ChampionshipBy Staff Reporter – March 7, 2018 1321 Advertisement Limerick Post Show | St Patrick’s Day Lone Piper Linkedin Print HSE Mid West Community Healthcare and UL Hospitals Group urges public to avoid household visits and social gatherings for St Patrick’s Day Members of the University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA pictured at the Limerick International Band Championship 2013.Picture:Brian Gavin More than 1,300 participants in 21 bands are to take part in the 48th annual Limerick International Band Championship as part of this year’s Limerick St Patrick’s Festival.The streets of Limerick will be filled with the spectacular sights of the marching bands from across Ireland, Europe and America on Sunday 18 March for the 48th running of the Limerick International Band Championship.The competition will start from O’Connell Street’s junction with Hartstonge Street at 12 noon, march down Limerick’s premier route, passed the reviewing stand before ending with a free concert for the public in Arthur’s Quay Park where the championship winners will be announced.Bands from the United States, Germany, England, Northern Ireland, Limerick and across the rest of Ireland will compete in the championship for the overall Kenneally Jewellers Perpetual Trophy.Among the visiting bands include the 196-strong Jackson High School ‘Purple Army’ Marching Band from Ohio, the Lakeville South High School Marching Cougars from Minnesota with 160 people marching, and the 167-strong Vestavia Hills High School Band from Alabama.The long tradition of marching bands from Limerick continues to be represented by Redemptorist Centre of Music Concert Band, who will be the first band to march, St Mary’s Prize Band, CBS Pipe Band, Newcastle West & District Pipe Band, City of Limerick Pipe Band and Boherbuoy Brass & Reed Band and many more!There are 11 bands from Ireland (or which six are from Limerick), seven bands from the United States and one each from Northern Ireland, England and Germany.Mayor of the City and County of Limerick Cllr Stephen Keary said: “It is such an amazing spectacle to watch the bands marching down O’Connell Street every year in the Band Championship. It is truly a unique event.”Bands will be allowed to perform at the reviewing stand for three minutes and will be judged by an international panel of judges consisting of Dr Stan Michalski, Norman Rogerson, Dr Andrea Strauss, Evelyn Grant and Niall Carroll.Sheila Deegan, Cultural and Arts Officer with Limerick City and County Council said: “It’s fantastic that the marching band tradition is alive and well in Limerick. Even on the coldest day the spectacular arrangements of music promise to warm the heart.”Sign up for the weekly Limerick Post newsletter Sign Up The winners will be announced at Arthur’s Quay Park following the marching. There are awards in several different categories.More local news here.
Previous articleSeneca Therapeutics Expands Product Pipeline Adding Six New SVV-001 Armed Constructs Targeting TEM 8 ExpressionNext articleGlobal PCB Market, Technology Landscape, Trends and Opportunities Report 2021 – ResearchAndMarkets.com Digital AIM Web Support Clean Energy Signs Multi-Year Contract with LA Metro for More Than 47 Million Gallons of Renewable Natural Gas NEWPORT BEACH, Calif.–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Feb 8, 2021– Clean Energy Fuels Corp. (NASDAQ: CLNE ) announced that the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (Metro) has signed a new agreement for an estimated 47.5 million gallons of its renewable natural gas (RNG) to fuel the nation’s largest transit bus fleet. This press release features multimedia. View the full release here: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20210208005062/en/ LA Metro has signed a new agreement for an estimated 47.5 million gallons of Clean Energy’s renewable natural gas to fuel the nation’s largest transit bus fleet. (Photo: Business Wire) This agreement will mark the completion of Metro’s 5-year goal to transition its diesel fleet to cleaner, low-carbon fuel, with 2,400 buses now running on RNG—the first renewable and commercially available vehicle fuel made entirely from organic waste. “Metro is committed to ensuring a seamless path towards a carbon neutral future,” said Metro’s Chief Sustainability Officer, Cris Liban. “Our use of RNG alongside our ultra-low NOx engines on our existing CNG fleet provides the most cost-effective, equitable, and clean air strategy as we continue to transition to a 100% zero-emissions bus fleet by 2030 and a net zero-emissions agency by 2050.” The fueling contract resulted from a competitive RFP process, with Metro awarding Clean Energy three fueling depots for a five-year term, with an option to extend up to three additional years. Clean Energy already delivers RNG to five additional Metro fueling depots under a previously awarded RNG agreement. Over the 5-year period, the transition to RNG will further reduce Metro’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions significantly compared to the use of conventional natural gas, driving down Metro’s Scope 1 emissions. Additionally, Metro has been retrofitting and replacing its buses with the Cummins-Westport Low NOx CNG engines that reduce smog-forming NOx to 90% lower than the EPA NOx limit. Clean Energy’s RNG is derived from capturing the biogenic methane produced by the decomposition of organic waste from dairies, landfills, and wastewater treatment plants. RNG reduces climate-harming greenhouse gas emissions by at least 70 percent, and even up to 300 percent depending on the source of the RNG, making it a negative carbon fuel. “Metro continues to lead public transportation as one of the cleanest fleets in the US, with nearly 22 million gallons of RNG delivered to Metro since 2017,” said Clean Energy Renewables Senior Vice President, Nate Jensen. “With this additional commitment to fuel with Clean Energy’s RNG, Metro is accelerating its path to net zero carbon emissions through RNG and other alternative fuels.” About Clean Energy Clean Energy Fuels Corp. is North America’s leading provider of the cleanest fuel for the transportation market. Through its sales of renewable natural gas (RNG), which is derived from capturing biogenic methane produced from decomposing organic waste, Clean Energy allows thousands of vehicle fleets, from airport shuttles to city buses to waste and heavy-duty trucks, to reduce their amount of climate-harming greenhouse gas by at least 70% and even up to 300% depending on the source of the RNG. Clean Energy can deliver RNG through compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquified natural gas (LNG) to its network of approximately 540 fueling stations across the U.S. and Canada. Clean Energy builds and operates CNG and LNG fueling stations for the transportation market, owns natural gas liquefication facilities in California and Texas, and transports bulk CNG and LNG to non-transportation customers around the U.S. For more information, visit www.CleanEnergyFuels.com. Forward-Looking Statements This news release contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933 and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that involve risks, uncertainties, and assumptions, including without limitation statements about amounts of RNG expected to be consumed and the benefits of RNG. Actual results and the timing of events could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements. The forward-looking statements made herein speak only as of the date of this press release and, unless otherwise required by law, Clean Energy undertakes no obligation to publicly update such forward-looking statements to reflect subsequent events or circumstances. Additionally, the reports and other documents Clean Energy files with the SEC (available at www.sec.gov ) contain risk factors, which may cause actual results to differ materially from the forward-looking statements contained in this news release. View source version on businesswire.com:https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20210208005062/en/ CONTACT: Clean Energy Contact: Raleigh Gerber 949-437-1397 [email protected] Contact: [email protected] KEYWORD: CALIFORNIA UNITED STATES NORTH AMERICA INDUSTRY KEYWORD: HEALTH PUBLIC TRANSPORT TRUCKING RAIL MARITIME TRANSPORT OIL/GAS LOGISTICS/SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT ALTERNATIVE ENERGY ENVIRONMENT ENERGY SOURCE: Clean Energy Fuels Corp. Copyright Business Wire 2021. PUB: 02/08/2021 06:00 AM/DISC: 02/08/2021 06:01 AM http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20210208005062/en Twitter Facebook Facebook WhatsApp WhatsApp Twitter By Digital AIM Web Support – February 8, 2021 Pinterest Pinterest TAGS Local NewsBusiness
Harps come back to win in Waterford Main Evening News, Sport, Nuacht and Obituaries Friday November 29th Main Evening News, Sport, Nuacht and Obituaries Friday November 29th:Audio Playerhttp://www.highlandradio.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/11/29news.mp300:0000:0000:00Use Up/Down Arrow keys to increase or decrease volume. RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Google+ Facebook Pinterest Journey home will be easier – Paul Hegarty Derry draw with Pats: Higgins & Thomson Reaction Twitter News, Sport and Obituaries on Monday May 24th Twitter Pinterest Facebook Google+ By News Highland – November 29, 2019 DL Debate – 24/05/21 WhatsApp AudioHomepage BannerNewsPlayback WhatsApp Previous articleCowan’s next football adventure is with GlentoranNext articleMotorcyclist injured in crash in Buncrana News Highland FT Report: Derry City 2 St Pats 2
Well appointed?On 9 Jan 2001 in Vexatious claims, Personnel Today Previous Article Next Article Comments are closed. Related posts:No related photos. Recent events have turned the spotlight on the people sitting on tribunals, but it is not always clear where members’ allegiances lieIn November, Trade and Industry Secretary Stephen Byers announced measures to dramatically increase the powers of employment tribunal chairmen to penalise “spurious” applications. The plans were aimed at mollifying the concerns of employers who felt bound by red tape and that embittered staff were making claims just to waste time. On the whole, the package was welcomed, although the Federation of Small Businesses was among the dissenters that argued that it did not go far enough. But there was one problem. In 1999-2000, tribunal chairmen awarded costs in just 1.7 per cent of cases. Did the Government plan its gesture to be an empty political sop to business? Or did it expect the new power to dish out £10,000 cost orders to be too much for tribunal chairmen to resist?Time will tell. But we can gather that tribunal chairmen do not seem to share the conviction of businesses that the applications they are considering are, on current definitions, “unreasonable”, “frivolous” or “vexatious”.Barry Mordsley, a long-serving part-time tribunal chairman in London, says the law on unfair dismissal – the single biggest claim – is rather pro-employer. “The test on unfair dismissal as it stands is whether the employer’s action was ‘within the range of reasonable responses’, not whether they acted unfairly. So, if an employer dismisses someone for misbehaviour and the tribunal thinks it does not sound so serious, the law is only whether it is ‘within the range of reasonable responses’. There is an argument that the test gives too much deference to employers.” Absorbing contestAn absorbing contest is in the making. It is, in effect, in the judiciary’s gift to pacify the concerns of employers. But, independent from government as judges are, it is not a gift they will relish. “If there is no change, the issue will have to be revisited,” says Jadine Riley, senior employment policy adviser at the CBI.Some believe it will be revisited sooner than expected. There is dark gossip among employment specialists that the Government may be considering doing something a little more dramatic with tribunals, something that looks less like tinkering with the current set-up. Nothing is confirmed but, according to some sources, the Government is thinking about a “loser pays” system, making the loser liable for the other side’s costs. “I find it hard to believe the Government might do it because it would tilt the balance heavily against employees,” says David Cockburn, head of employment at trade union solicitors Pattinson and Brewer. “But that is what is being talked about.”Trade unions would not be happy. But they have been unhappy about other recent changes made to tribunal operations. In addition to Byers’ recent conversion to the arguments of business lobby groups about spurious claims, trade unions feel aggrieved by changes to the system for appointing lay members to tribunals. They think amendments to the DTI’s recruitment process have made it difficult to be sure tribunals properly represent employers and employees. Until recently, 95 per cent of the 2,100 individuals who sat on tribunals were nominated by the CBI and CIPD, acting on behalf of employers, and the TUC, acting on behalf of workers. Typically, a role on a tribunal, or, even better, the Employment Appeal Tribunal, was a kind of gong for trade union national officials and retiring personnel directors.But during the last recruitment round, the Government changed the system to comply with the Nolan Committee’s guidelines on public appointments and encourage more applications from women and ethnic minorities (see panel). Recruitment consultancy KMC International Search and Selection handled the 21,000 inquiries and 9,000 applications.And quite a dramatic shift resulted. No longer could employees’ and employers’ organisations stitch it up between them. Of the 330 most recent appointments, only a few were nominated by any of the organisations. In the case of the TUC, just 22 of 142 nominations have been appointed. The CBI has found that only 13 per cent of its candidates have been successful.The great virtue of the old tripartite system was that everyone knew where tribunal members stood. But under the new process neither workers’ nor employers’ organisations are sure of the backgrounds of lay members; a senior manager may consider themselves “an employee”, but their allegiances and prejudices may be managerial, for instance. Under the new system, applicants are appointed to two panels, one for employees and one for employers, but, significantly, the DTI says “they are not required to represent particular interests”.Sarah Veale, employment rights officer for the TUC, believes that no one can really know whom a tribunal member is representing. “We feel that this has robbed the tribunals of what everyone always said was important: practical experience of the workplace. No one knows the backgrounds of these people.”Big riskCIPD employee relations adviser Mike Emmott says, “It remains to be seen if chairmen find themselves well-supported, but I do think the Government has taken a big risk.”Douglas Fraser, managing director of KMC, defends the process. He says people put themselves forward to the two panels on a self-selection basis, references were taken and the candidates were interviewed against competencies drawn up by industrial psychology specialist OTL. A DTI representative and a retired tribunal chairman carried out the interviews. “If anyone felt the candidate was not credible for the panel they put themselves in, they would not go through,” he says. “But it was noticeable after a while that you could not tell which panel they were from. We were looking for independence and objectivity in getting to the truth.”The appointments system to tribunals has also suffered a shake-up courtesy of the Human Rights Act – a piece of legislation that arguably affords anyone who is unhappy with the kind of justice they are receiving a greater opportunity to challenge it than ever before. The European Convention on Human Rights, which the act brings into British law, contains one particular clause that has had an impact on tribunals and could potentially be more far-reaching. Article 6, dealing with access to justice reads, “In the determination of his civil rights and obligations, or of any criminal charge against him, everyone is entitled to a fair and public hearing within a reasonable time by an independent and impartial tribunal established by law.”In Scotland, where the Human Rights Act was incorporated into the legislation on devolution in 1998, the clause has sparked intense debate. One notorious case, Starr and Chalmers, caused anxiety that the tribunal system could suffer a barrage of challenges under the Human Rights Act, and prompted a UK-wide review by the Lord Chancellor of the system of lay appointments.The case established that the ability of the Scottish Lord Advocate to appoint and remove temporary sheriffs compromised the independence of the judiciary under Article 6. The problem was that much the same complaint could be levelled at the procedure by which the DTI appoints the members of the 24 employment tribunals.So, during last spring and summer, the Lord Chancellor, Lord Irvine, trawled through dozens of tribunals making amendments to increase the security of tenure of members and thereby reduce the risk of complaints of political interference. On employment tribunals, lay members would be automatically re-appointed unless there were accusations of gross misconduct.Wake-up callThe anxiety subsided. Other Article 6 challenges fell. The DTI expressed satisfaction that, by reducing the turnover of members, the rest of the system would not need further reform. But the episode served as a wake-up call that the people dishing out workplace justice were far from untouchable.David Leckie, an employment partner with Scotland-based law firm MacKay Simon, says, “With the Human Rights Act now in force, there is far greater scope for enterprising lawyers to challenge the administration of justice. If there are doubts about the prejudices tribunal members may have – if they are a Mason, too pro-employer, or too trade union, for instance – they may decide it is worth a go, although the courts have taken a rather robust attitude to HRA challenges in Scotland so far.”As a pre-emptive measure against further Article 6 challenges, the Scottish Executive will also grant legal aid for complex tribunal claims from 15 January. “A chancer’s charter” is what the CBI in Scotland called it. The Federation of Small Businesses takes a more sanguine view. Bill Knox, the federation’s employment spokesman, who served on the Acas council for more than eight years, says, “Legal aid payments have dropped dramatically over recent years, so I’m not sure it will increase the number of cases that much. It depends on the criteria.” Much of the detail will depend on the proposals of the Scottish Legal Aid Board. “We don’t expect a majority or even a substantial minority of claims will attract legal aid,” a spokesman for the Scottish Executive says. In all, it has been quite a year for internal reforms to tribunals. If claims continue at the current rate, future years could be equally busy for chairmen and members.TRIBUINAL FACT FILEFull time Chairmen Part time 76 women 206 8 ethnic minority 40 4 disabled 5Tribunal lay membersThere are 2,100 lay members of tribunals, appointed by the DTI. They are appointed against public selection criteria taking in factors such as being of good character, able to reach a balanced judgement, the ability to command respect and be available for a 15 sittings a year. Of the total number:32 per cent are women.l 7 per cent are from ethnic minorities. l 7 per cent are disabled. Half are drawn from the 30-59 age group. Half are drawn from the 60-69 age group. Of the most recent intake of 326 individuals:54 per cent are women.17 per cent are from ethnic minorities.18 per cent have had experience of working with a disability.Eligibility criteria and how they are appointedTribunal chairmen are appointed by the Lord Chancellor.They must be seven years qualified, aged between 35 and 62, should have “satisfactory sight and hearing” and be able “to sit and concentrate for long periods of time”. The eligibility criteria also says they should not have any criminal records, any complaints which have been upheld against them or anything else that “may be a source of embarrassment to themselves or the Lord Chancellor” in their past.In common with other judicial appointments, before making the decision there is a system of informal consultation with peers. “The Lord Chancellor will have regard to the comments (which are given to him in confidence) received from judges and members of the profession who have been consulted about the individual’s qualities and suitability for appointment.” As well as legal knowledge, experience, intellectual ability, sound judgement and communication kills, chairmen must also exhibit decisiveness. “The ability to reach firm conclusions (often at speed), to think, decide and act independently and to rely on his or her own judgement in due consultation with other members of the tribunal.” And authority: “The ability to promote expeditious despatch of business, preventing unnecessary prolixity, repetition and irrelevance whilst ensuring that all participants (whether represented or not) are enabled to present their evidence as fully and fairly as possible.”The criteria also detail the personal qualities of successful candidates. They should have integrity, fairness, understanding of people and society, “maturity and sound temperament” and be committed to public service. “They will have and convey understanding of, and sympathy for, the needs and concerns of tribunal users as appropriate and be sensitive and humane.”