Remembering Sherman’s Army

first_imgShare on Facebook Tweet on Twitter Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. TAGSMemorial Daythe conversation.com Previous articleIn case you missed it: The Apopka news week in reviewNext articleSitting on a scoop: the story behind the V-E headlines of May 1945 Denise Connell RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR LEAVE A REPLY Cancel reply Mama Mia Support conservation and fish with NEW Florida specialty license plate May 28, 2018 at 10:18 am Reply Nemesis May 28, 2018 at 6:03 pm 2 COMMENTScenter_img Please enter your comment! On this Memorial Day, remember Sherman? Ha, hardly. Sherman who? I don’t remember him AT ALL! The Anatomy of Fear You have entered an incorrect email address! Please enter your email address here By Anne Sarah Rubin, Associate Professor History, University of Maryland, Baltimore County and first published on theconversation.comThey marched down Pennsylvania Avenue, 65,000 strong, tightly packed, in a column that ultimately stretched for 15 miles and took over six hours to pass.Their “glittering muskets looked like a solid mass of steel, moving with the regularity of a pendulum.”Sherman’s Army marched steadily, firmly, like the hardened veterans that they were, with dignity and discipline.They marched through throngs of cheering spectators, thousands upon thousands of black and white Washingtonians, crowding the streets and the sidewalks, leaning out of windows and huzzahing.Their torn and dirty flags were garlanded with flowers, but black streamers hung from the staffs, emblems of mourning for Abraham Lincoln.The Army of the Potomac had marched the day before, all spit and polish, to great cheers of acclamation, but this day, May 24th, 1865, belonged to the Western Army, to Sherman’s Bummers. “Bummer” had once been used as an epithet for slackers and thieves, but Sherman’s men took this on as an honored nickname.They were, in the words of the New York Times, the “glorious veterans…heroes of the greatest march on record,” and their beloved Uncle Billy, General William Tecumseh Sherman, was the man of the hour.Parading with the spoils of warSpectators uniformly noted that the cheers for the Westerners were even louder and more sustained than those for the Easterners.Nor did they march alone. Sherman’s Army, famous for making Georgia – and then South Carolina and North Carolina – howl, brought their spoils of war to the victory parade.Each brigade was led by its respective “pioneer corps,” made up of formerly enslaved men who were put to work clearing swamps and building roads, helping the soldiers as they hacked their way across the Confederacy.And interspersed throughout the columns of soldiers were scenes designed to bring the story of the march right into the heart of the capital: African-American mothers with their children; mules and donkeys laden down with hams and chickens; soldiers’ pet dogs and raccoons.The crowd responded to these amusing vignettes with further cheers and gales of laughter.The beginning of rememberingThe Grand Review of the Union Armies on May 23-24 1865 was a performance, a victory display of martial power designed to put the final punctuation on the war.Washingtonians literally swept away the mourning crepe that had draped buildings for the previous five weeks and greeted the soldiers with open arms and an outpouring of emotion.Marching up Pennsylvania Avenue. National ArchivesSherman was himself a master of the theatrical grand gesture, as evidenced by the drama of his march, and he embraced this opportunity.For the Grand Review didn’t just mark the end of the war, but the beginning of the remembering. And Sherman’s soldiers carefully crafted their own narrative of what the march meant to them.Today, Americans’ cultural memory of Sherman’s March is generally that of the Southern civilians who saw their homes raided and their property destroyed.Atlanta burning in Gone With the Wind.It is a memory that has been shaped most profoundly by Gone with the Wind – both the book and film – and the result is a portrayal of Sherman as Attila, and his men as Huns or Vandals, bent on vengeance, careless with fire, possibly guilty of war crimes.But that’s not how Sherman and his men were seen during the Grand Review, and it’s not how they saw themselves.William Tecumseh Sherman. National ArchivesSherman’s veterans, at least those who spoke and wrote publicly about their experiences, were remarkably untroubled by the war they made against civilians.They looked at the march not as something that broke the laws of war, but instead as one of the great experiences of their lives.The veterans speakFor Sherman’s veterans, the Georgia and Carolinas campaigns, with their short daily marches, abundant food and lack of fighting, were a lark.As General Noyes recalled in 1869,“in this rollicking picnic expedition there was just enough of fighting for variety, enough of hardship to give zest to the repose which followed it, and enough of ludicrous adventure to make its memory a constant source of gratification.”And their reminiscences were often quite funny, even as they told of stealing clothing or wrecking storehouses. They praised Bummers for their endless appetites.One veteran called the common soldier “an Octopus of Abdomen, whose tentacles reached every hen roost and pig sty.” They were adventurers and rogues, not despoilers and villains.But to see Sherman’s veterans as emphasizing only the lighthearted aspects of the march is to fundamentally misunderstand what it meant to them.For all their minimizing of hardships and the horrors of war, they well understood what they fought for, and they believed wholeheartedly that their march, their efforts, had brought the war to an end.Pulling up the tracks in Atlanta. Library of Congress – LC-DIG-cwpb-03391They never wavered in their belief that the march was necessary. The Confederacy had brought destruction on itself by tearing apart the Union, they believed, and it was the duty of these soldiers to reunite the nation, by any means at their disposal.Many of Sherman’s veterans sought to preserve their own memories of the war and the march in order to explicitly counter the pro-Confederate Lost Cause that gained prominence during the late 19th century.Their efforts were no match for that cultural tide. Only now, as the sesquicentennial passes, can we pause to remember their version of Sherman’s March. AWW COME ON LADY, Billy most likely saved man a good man from an early death. Brash? Bold? Even Mad perhaps, but he doesn’t deserve to be forgotten. Your nemesis Please enter your name here Reply Free webinar for job seekers on best interview answers, hosted by Goodwill June 11 last_img read more

Defending breakthrough research

first_imgIn the late 1990s, computer-chip makers were facing a Moore’s Law dead end, and Harvard chemist Roy Gordon thought he could help.The famous dictum said that transistor density on a computer chip would double every two years. Gordon knew that the problem with Moore’s Law didn’t come in understanding the dizzying pace of technological change that it describes; it involved coming up with innovations that can sustain that pace. And Gordon had made a career as an innovator.Gordon, who says he’s always been interested in chemistry — his scar from an explosion in his childhood chem lab is proof — already had transformed one industry.In the ’70s, as America staggered through the Arab oil embargo, Gordon discovered a way to save energy by coating ordinary window glass to make it a better insulator. The coated glass retains a home’s heat in winter and its cool air in summer. Today the process is still widely used as one of two major ways that low-e glass is made. His coated glass is also the starting point for making most thin-film solar cells.That was Gordon’s best-known discovery — earning him a spot in the Corning Museum of Glass — but he has been issued 100 patents. Gordon’s expertise in creating ultra-thin films with particular chemical properties is valuable across multiple industries, and would prove vital in enabling Moore’s Law to continue.For decades, Moore’s Law had held true. Electronic components shrank, and that fed astonishing leaps in processing speed, leading to rapid evolution in computers, cellular phones, and a growing range of devices made smart by adding a chip brain.Yet if electronic devices were to get smarter, smaller, and thinner, the semiconductor industry had to solve a problem with a new kind of insulator called a “high-k dielectric.” The previous insulator had worked fine for a while in keeping electrical currents segregated where chip designers wanted them. But in thinner layers, the insulator got leaky. So industry scientists experimented with rare metals to take its place.Experiments were essential because chip architectures were evolving too. The demand for more surface area had led chip designers to propose three-dimensional structures on what previously had been flat chips. While that provided the needed real estate to make chips smarter, it created a new problem. Instead of just raining atoms onto flat chip surfaces, scientists had to coax them to spread evenly into sometimes extreme nooks and crannies.After talking with colleagues at conferences and reviewing the industry’s public roadmap — essentially a wish list of new technologies — Gordon became intrigued by this problem: How do you lay down a thin film across such extremely rough terrain?“Very few industries admit to being stuck about where they want to go next,” said Gordon, who holds joint appointments as Thomas Dudley Cabot Professor of Chemistry in the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, and professor of materials science in Harvard’s John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences. “The semiconductor industry encourages innovation. It publishes this roadmap. For a scientist, it’s a goldmine. You can find out what are the important problems to solve.”Over a few years, Gordon, his graduate students Jill Becker and Dennis Hausmann, and postdoctoral fellow Seigi Suh would play central roles in making that high-k dielectric insulator work. Their primary innovation, filed at the U.S. Patent Office in 2000 and described in scientific papers in 2001 and 2002, was to create a novel carrier molecule, one never before seen outside of Gordon’s lab, as well as to identify a class of precursor molecules ideally suited to use in a method called atomic layer deposition (ALD) to create thin films. This precursor molecule delivered the insulator where it had to go. Once there it released the metal atoms to form a uniform layer, while its other components — such as carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen — were easily removed, leaving behind the pure insulator layer.Recognizing innovationThe Gordon lab’s innovation enabled the use of high-k dielectric insulators, smaller electronic components, and ultimately faster computers and smartphones. But the inventors’ contributions have often gone unacknowledged outside of academia.Widespread, unlicensed use in the semiconductor industry has prompted Harvard to file patent-infringement suits against two major chipmakers, Micron and GlobalFoundries. The University believes that these companies have violated patents that claim inventions created in Gordon’s lab.Isaac T. Kohlberg, Harvard’s senior associate provost, said it’s important that Harvard protect the intellectual property rights of faculty, postdoctoral researchers, students, and the University itself, particularly in an era when corporations increasingly look to academia for significant advances in science, engineering, and technology.“Our strong relationships with industry leaders, entrepreneurs, and investors ensure the development and commercialization of cutting-edge innovations that arise in University labs,” Kohlberg said. “It’s a crucial part of our academic mission and our role in the global economy — to disseminate impactful technologies so that they can become useful products and bring benefit to society. Harvard launched 14 startups last year and granted 50 technology licenses because companies value Harvard research, and our faculty expect it. They want to see their work doing good in the world.”Innovations take time to reach their full potential. A discovery in cancer biology, for example, may lead to a new therapy only after years of drug development. And very large manufacturing operations such as the semiconductor industry can be slow to fully adopt new materials and processes. That’s why the patent system protects the efforts of inventors and licensees for up to 20 years.“This is about honoring the intellectual property rights of our inventors,” said Kohlberg, who oversees Harvard’s Office of Technology Development. “It’s their ideas, their teamwork, their long days and nights in the lab, and their persistence through setbacks that advances science for everyone’s benefit, and they deserve recognition for that.” Gordon’s laboratoryOne common commercial product that initially posed a challenge for manufacturers as chip structures evolved was dynamic random access memory (DRAM), which provides a computer’s working memory. DRAM swaps information in and out of memory nearly instantaneously and is a significant factor in the speed at which a computer performs.Three-dimensional DRAM chips were designed with extreme features: very deep and narrow slots that needed to be conformally coated with a high-k dielectric material such as hafnium oxide.“I thought it a very important and interesting technical problem,” Gordon said.Industry scientists were using a compound called hafnium chloride to try to carry hafnium into the slot, but while it could create a hafnium oxide film on the upper portion of the chip architecture, it left the deep recesses bare.Gordon had worked extensively with thin films in the past, but he recognized that the high-k dielectric problem would require using ALD.“When it works, it’s a marvelous process. It makes layers of very uniform thickness, gives good control over how thick that layer is,” Gordon said.After looking at commercially available ALD machines, however, he decided it would be possible to make one that better suited his needs, and at a fraction of the cost.So Gordon worked with members of his lab to build such a machine. They explored a variety of options, such as using automotive fuel injectors to spray the hafnium-containing vapors, but found the chemicals were more caustic than gasoline and corroded the injectors. Soon, through trial and error, his researchers designed and built a working system.Gordon’s team also set to work creating precursor compounds especially adapted to work with ALD processes.“We worked long hours to get the experiments to work,” Gordon said. The research team even worked straight through some holidays; an entry in one lab notebook opens with “Merry Christmas.”“It’s not as if my students joined a lab that was already doing it [ALD]. We had to set up everything, build it, test it, make sure it worked,” Gordon said.The team discovered a class of compounds, called metal alkylamides, that did the trick, producing a uniform coating throughout deep trenches.Having first filed a patent in 2000, the group published papers in 2001 and 2002 that have been cited more than 700 times.“We had results that I was very excited about,” Gordon recalled, “because we solved an important problem, something nobody else had done.”The result of Gordon’s team effort also worked on test structures similar to those on a DRAM chip. Word spread, and the compound began to be used in the industry, Gordon said.“This was quite an eye-opener for people in the field,” he said. “These compounds became very popular because they worked so well.”last_img read more

Heroes steps up in thriller

first_img Press Association No More Heroes saw off Shaneshill to land a thrilling Navan Novice Hurdle for Gordon Elliott and Barry Geraghty. Top bumper performer Shaneshill was all the rage for the Grade Two feature following a comfortable victory on his jumps debut at Fairyhouse last month, and the 4-9 favourite hurdled and travelled fluently in the hands of Ruby Walsh as Shantou Flyer took them along. Once the leader faded, the big two were left to fight it out and there was little to choose between them as they jumped the final flight, but though Walsh went for everything on the run-in, the 3-1 shot No More Heroes saw out the two-and-a-half-mile trip best and came home a length and three-quarters ahead. center_img Geraghty, standing in for the suspended Bryan Cooper, said: “I suppose we could have gone quicker, but it was a tactical race. “He travelled away well and jumped nicely. Shaneshill came to beat me and got half a length up on me, but my fellow found plenty. “He’s not slow, but he will enjoy a trip and will enjoy a fence and he loves a dig in the ground. If you ran him over a trip on nice ground I think he’d be OK, once it’s safe.” Elliott added: “I think he’s a very nice horse. Barry said they didn’t go fast enough for him, and he was a bit guessy at a few of them. “I’m not sure where he’ll go next and Naas (Grade One Lawlors Hotel Novice Hurdle, January 4) may come a bit quick for him. “He’s a three-mile horse for Cheltenham and I’d be looking at the Albert Bartlett. He’s a real relaxed horse and does everything at his own pace.” Reflecting on the reverse for Shaneshill, trainer Willie Mullins said: “Gordon’s horse is improving and we got beaten. I’d be hoping for better in the future.” RaceBets cut No More Heroes to 8-1 from 12-1 for the Albert Bartlett at Cheltenham in March. last_img read more